A basement is an entire floor of a building located partially or completely below ground level. A cellar is an underground room used for storage or shelter (e.g., a root cellar, wine cellar, or storm cellar). Basements are sometimes finished, habitable spaces; cellars often aren’t. A cellar can be constructed as a discrete structure, but a basement is always underneath a building’s ground floor. A cellar may be considered to be a type of basement, or a room within a basement, or the two terms may be used interchangeably.
Entries in architecture (3)
A wigwam is a domed house consisting of a ring of saplings that are set in the ground, bent over, bound at the top, and covered with matting, skins, or bark. Wigwam is an Algonquian term applied to such structures in the American Northeast; in the Southwest, they are called wickiups. Wigwams aren’t portable, and require more time to erect than tepees.
The 3 styles of classical Greek and Roman architecture are the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. These orders are most easily distinguished by their columns. To recognize their differences, it helps to be familiar with a few architectural terms. A column consists of a long shaft sitting between a base at the bottom and a capital at the top. The horizontal beam that rests on the columns is called the entablature, which is divided into 3 horizontal layers. From bottom to top, they are the architrave, the frieze, and the cornice.
stylobate - the platform on which the columns rest
plinth - the lowest part of the base
moldings - contoured horizontal bands that separate other architectural elements
fluting - the shallow vertical grooves that run the length of the shaft
entasis - a slight bulge in the middle of a column
necking - a molding between the top of the shaft and the bottom of the capital
echinus - the convex molding on a Doric capital
abacus - the square block at the top of the capital that supports the entablature
volute - a spiral-shaped ornament on a capital
triglyph - 3 vertical bands separated by grooves
metope - a rectangular panel, sometimes with a sculptural relief
dentils - an ornamental series of small, tooth-shaped blocks in a cornice
|Overall appearance||Simple, heavy||Lighter and more decorative than Doric||Most slender and ornate|
|Earliest known usage||7th century BC||6th century BC||5th century BC|
|Column height to diameter ratio||7:1||8:1||9:1|
|Capital||Plain, round||2 volutes separated by egg and dart shaped ornaments||Elaborate, with rows of acanthus leaves below volutes|
|Entablature||Frieze with alternating triglyphs and metopes||Plain or sculptural frieze and dentils in the cornice||Plain or sculptural frieze and dentils in the cornice|