Narcolepsy is a disorder characterized by sudden, brief, uncontrollable episodes of REM sleep at inappropriate times. Cataplexy is an abrupt loss of muscle tone, usually triggered by strong emotions. This transient weakness or paralysis occurs while the patient is conscious, and can manifest as anything from slurred speech to complete collapse. Cataplexy is frequently associated with narcolepsy. Other symptoms of narcolepsy include excessive daytime sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.
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A dwarf is an extremely short person, sometimes defined as an individual under 147 cm (4 ft 10 in). Dwarfism has numerous underlying causes, but in general, dwarfs are either disproportionate or proportionate. The majority of cases of disproportionate dwarfism are caused by achondroplasia, a genetic condition affecting cartilage development. Achondroplastic dwarfs are characterized by an average size trunk, short limbs, and a large head. In proportionate dwarfism, often caused by growth hormone deficiency, the body is very small, but all body parts are normally proportioned. In the past, proportionate dwarfs were called midgets, but because of associations with sideshow acts, the word is now considered offensive.
Podiatrists and chiropodists are doctors who diagnose and treat foot disorders. Podiatrist is the preferred term in American English, and chiropodist was preferred in British English. Although there is no official distinction between the titles, in contemporary use, chiropody implies routine or palliative foot care, and podiatry is associated with more advanced treatment, including surgery.